Buddhism is one of the five major religions in the world and is recognized for its deep understanding of the mind, its sophisticated philosophy, and the fact that it promotes peaceful coexistence. It employs a multitude of techniques of meditation for attaining inner peace and non-dual wisdom with the aim of perfection or enlightenment. Buddhism developed from the teachings spread by its founder Siddhartha Gautama, the great Enlightened One, around the 5th century BC, in the northeast of India. His disciples also acquired a high state of spiritual development and Buddhism rapidly expanded to become the predominant religion in India and most of Asia adapting to the cultures of the nation to which it spread. Buddhism is made up of a variety of schools, doctrines, and practices that are classified as Theravada, Mahayana and Vajrayana. The main message of Buddhism is the emancipation of the self through the purification of the causes of suffering and the acquisition of the causes of happiness. Buddhism empowers the individual with the tools for shedding all negative patterns and limiting concepts. At the same time, Buddhism teaches us how to discover our virtuous qualities and the wisdom that transcends the veils obscuring reality, thus allowing us to achieve the ultimate happiness. It is debated whether Buddhism is a religion or not, due to the absence of an absolute deity although, at the same time, having the purpose of salvation. The universal character of Buddhism has also been described as a transcultural phenomenon, philosophy or method of transformation. Nowadays a dynamic dialogue between Buddhist masters and scientists is growing.